Up to now, there have been 173 IPs and EPZs which have been put into operation with a total area of about 43,718 ha of natural land. Currently, 105 Industrial Parks have been built and operated sewage treatment plants, the rest is in the building and site clearance. Estimated 5-year plan 2011-2015 has set a goal that by 2015, 100% of the industrial zones are already in operation of sewage treatment which obtains environmental standards.
The construction of wastewater treatment stations concentrated in the industrial zone was accelerated by the competent bodies. In some areas, the ratio of the IPs which have sewage treatment plants is high, such as the Red River Delta and the Southeast region, at the same time, the number of business enterprises in industrial parks and export processing zones connected to the wastewater treatment plant is high (85%).
many businesses in industrial zones and export processing zones have made the construction of waste gas treatment system. Some industries discharge waste gas levels as high as production of construction materials, mechanical... actively implement preventive measures. Therefore, pollution emissions, noise is limited.
The majority of enterprises in industrial zones and export processing zones have been classified measures and temporary storage before collection to treatment places. A number of IPs and EPZs have organized collection, focused waste treatment.
The registration of sources of hazardous waste as prescribed in Circular No. 12/2006/TT-BTNMT on December 26th 2006 of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment is urging the implementation.
After the Decree No. 29/2008/ND-CP of the Government was issued and the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment guided the implementation of Circular No. 08/2009/TT-BTNMT on July 15th 2009, the coordination between the Management Board of the IPs and EPZs, EZs with the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Natural Resources and Environment, environmental police and other agencies involved in environmental protection work of IZ, EPZ, EZ is done frequently and more closely. Also, environmental protection awareness of enterprises has been increasing, as proved in the work of wastewater treatment.
However, the environmental protection industrial park also revealed shortcomings and obstacles to overcome.
Most of the IPs and EPZs have produced multi-sector development and multi-sector emissions so many different types of wastewater, the collection and processing is generally difficult. Although the number of wastewater treatment plants has increased, but as followed by the report of IP Management Board, in the vicinity of IPs and EPZs in some localities, a number of waste water exceeds the allowed standard.
As equipments for this work mainly were still sketchy, simple, not yet minimized the impact of emissions caused to the surrounding environment. Environmental quality of air in industrial zones, especially in the industrial zones established on the basis of the old enterprises with available production technology is outdated or not invested treatment systems are in. Besides, the problem of air pollution in the production facilities of industrial zones are also issues that need attention.
Hazardous waste and solid waste: Some businesses in the industrial zones and export processing zones do not register waste sources as required, some with self-storage business waste, which make pollution locally. In some localities with no collecting and handling business of hazardous waste for secondary enterprises in IPs and EPZs, so these hazardous waste expose a risk of environmental pollution.
In some localities, the implementation to authorize for IPs, EZs management board in environmental management is not thoroughly which makes the task of inspecting and checking become overlap and ineffective... Besides, due to investment for environment increases the cost of business activities, directly affecting profit gain, so in some places, the environmental protection business may be done involuntarily, there should be closely examine the compliance with environmental laws.
To ensure effective environmental protection in industrial parks in the future, in this article, some measures are suggested to strengthen environmental protection to share with readers.
- The process of planning must take immediately factors that cause environmental pollution and proposed mitigation measures and environmental protection.
- To attract investment in these industrial zones with priority industry clean, less pollution, make sure the job structure in line with actual ability and resolve of local pollution, creating favorable conditions in the published plant location, building plans for environmental protection.
- Review and continue to adjust, amend the legal documents related to the decentralization of environmental management by promoting decentralization, licensing and direct responsibility for environmental protection to Industrial Zones, EZ; clearly define the responsibilities of the IP owner with secondary investment enterprises in the IP toward environmental protection. Establish policies to encourage enterprises to implement cleaner production, energy savings in the IZ. Research and develop model with environment-friendly industrial park, first piloted and then rolled out nationwide.
- Decentralization and assign clear responsibility, particularly towards centralized management, which clearly define the responsibilities of the Management Board of industrial zones, industrial zone investors and businesses in the industrial zone.
- Review and continue to add and adjust the legal system on environment
- Mobilize the total capital of environmental investment in IP, including enterprise funds for infrastructure development, credit capital from credit institutions, ODA, capital from the state budget, in that business capital infrastructure development is essential, issue mechanisms and policies to create the basis for financial assistance, investment incentives for the construction works of the environmental protection business.
- Strengthening inspection and checking of law enforcement in the IP environment, and consider the adjustment of financial institutions to ensure deterrence against violations of environmental law.
- Actively propagate and disseminate environmental law for businesses to develop IP infrastructure as well as secondary businesses and enhance community participation in environmental protection work of industrial zones to encourage socialization activities for environmental protection.
- Promote competition rewards in the work environment IPs and EPZs, EZs, encourage timely business, Management Board of industrial parks, EPZs, EZs perform this work well.